His first fiction was "Cruthers and Jonson", one of several abortive attempts at writing a novel. Following his work on a translation of Goethe 's Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship ,  he came to distrust the form of the realistic novel and so worked on developing a new form of fiction. In addition to his essays on German literature, he branched out into wider ranging commentary on modern culture in his influential essays Signs of the Times and Characteristics.
Moreover, at this time he penned articles appraising the life and works of various poets and men of letters, including Goethe , Voltaire and Diderot. His first major work, Sartor Resartus "The Tailor Retailored" was begun as an article on "the philosophy of clothes", and surprised him by growing into a full-length book. He wrote it in at the house on his wife Jane's estate, Craigenputtock ,  and was intended to be a new kind of book: simultaneously factual and fictional, serious and satirical, speculative and historical.
Ironically, it commented on its own formal structure while forcing the reader to confront the problem of where "truth" is to be found.https://percdanussburtho.ga/superando-la-ficcin.php
PDF History, Heroism and Home (History Comes to Life)
Sartor Resartus was first published in installments in Fraser's Magazine from to Underneath the German philosopher's seemingly ridiculous statements, there are mordant attacks on Utilitarianism and the commercialisation of British society. He contemplates the "Everlasting No" of refusal, comes to the "Centre of Indifference", and eventually embraces the "Everlasting Yea". Given the genre-breaking nature of Sartor Resartus , it is not surprising that it at first achieved little attention.
Its popularity developed over the next few years, and it was published as a single volume in Boston , with a preface by Ralph Waldo Emerson , influencing the development of New England Transcendentalism. The first British book edition followed in The Everlasting Yea is Carlyle's name in the book for the spirit of faith in God in an express attitude of clear, resolute, steady, and uncompromising antagonism to the Everlasting No ; that is against the principle that there is no such thing as faith in God except in such antagonism to the spirit opposed to God.
In Sartor Resartus, the narrator moves from the "Everlasting No" to the "Everlasting Yea," but only through "The Centre of Indifference," a position of agnosticism and detachment. Only after reducing desires and certainty, aiming at a Buddha -like "indifference", can the narrator realise affirmation. Following Goethe's description of Christianity as the "Worship of Sorrow", and "our highest religion, for the Son of Man", Carlyle interprets this as "there is no noble crown, well worn or even ill worn, but is a crown of thorns".
BBC Radio 4 - In Our Time, Heroism
The "Worship of Silence" is Carlyle's name for the sacred respect for restraint in speech till "thought has silently matured itself, In , the Carlyles left Craigenputtock for London and began to network in intellectual circles. The work had a passion surprising in historical writing of that period. In a politically charged Europe, filled with fears and hopes of revolution, Carlyle's account of the motivations and urges that inspired the events in France seemed powerfully relevant.
Carlyle stressed the immediacy of action — often using the present tense — and incorporated different perspectives on the events he described. For Carlyle, chaotic events demanded what he called 'heroes' to take control over the competing forces erupting within society. While not denying the importance of economic and practical explanations for events, he saw these forces as 'spiritual' — the hopes and aspirations of people that took the form of ideas, and were often ossified into ideologies "formulas" or " isms ", as he called them.
In Carlyle's view, only dynamic individuals could master events and direct these spiritual energies effectively: as soon as ideological 'formulas' replaced heroic human action, society became dehumanised. Like the opinions of many thinkers of the time, these ideas were influential on the development and rise of both Socialism and Fascism. The book was based on a course of lectures he had given. The French Revolution had brought Carlyle recognition, but little money, so friends organised courses of public lectures, drumming up an audience and selling one guinea tickets.
Though Carlyle disliked lecturing, he discovered a facility for it; more importantly it brought in much-needed income. Between and , Carlyle delivered four such courses of lectures, the final of which was on "Heroes". His lecture notes were transformed into the book, with the effects of the spoken discourse still discernible in the prose. Carlyle was one of the few philosophers who lived through the British industrial revolution but maintained a non-materialistic view of historical development.
The book included lectures discussing people ranging from the field of religion through to literature and politics. The figures chosen for each lecture were presented by Carlyle as archetypal examples of individuals who, in their respective fields of endeavor, had dramatically impacted history in some way, for good or ill, and included such figures as Dante poet , Luther priest , and Napoleon king.
In his work, Carlyle outlined Muhammad as a Hegelian agent of reform, insisting on his sincerity and commenting "how one man single-handedly, could weld warring tribes and wandering Bedouins into a most powerful and civilised nation in less than two decades". His interpretation has been widely cited by Muslim scholars seeking Western support that Muhammad was one of the great men of history. Carlyle held "That great men should rule and that others should revere them", a view that for him was supported by a complex faith in history and evolutionary progress.
Societies, like organisms, evolve throughout history, thrive for a time, but inevitably become weak and die out, giving place to a stronger, superior breed. Heroes are those who affirm this life process, accepting its cruelty as necessary and thus good. For them courage is a more valuable virtue than love; heroes are noblemen, not saints. The hero functions first as a pattern for others to imitate, and second as a creator, moving history forwards not backwards history being the biography of great men.
Carlyle was among the first of his age to recognize that the death of God is in itself nothing to be happy about, unless man steps in and creates new values to replace the old. For Carlyle the hero should become the object of worship, the center of a new religion proclaiming humanity as "the miracle of miracles The Heroic Vitalists feared that the recent trends toward democracy would hand over power to the ill-bred, uneducated, and immoral, whereas their belief in a transcendent force in nature directing itself onward and upward gave some hope that this overarching force would overrule in favor of the strong, intelligent, and noble.
Friedrich Nietzsche agreed with much of Carlyle's hero worship, transferring many qualities of the hero to his concept of the superman. He believed that the hero should be revered, not for the good he has done for the people, but simply out of admiration for the marvelous. The hero justifies himself as a man chosen by destiny to be great. In the life struggle he is a conqueror, growing stronger through conflict.
The hero is not ashamed of his strength; instead of the Christian virtues of meekness, humility and compassion, he abides by the beatitudes of Heroic Vitalism: courage, nobility, pride, and the right to rule. His slogan: "The good old rule, the simple plan, that he should keep who has the power, and he should take who can. For Carlyle, the hero was somewhat similar to Aristotle 's "magnanimous" man — a person who flourished in the fullest sense.
However, for Carlyle, unlike Aristotle, the world was filled with contradictions with which the hero had to deal. All heroes will be flawed. Their heroism lay in their creative energy in the face of these difficulties, not in their moral perfection. To sneer at such a person for their failings is the philosophy of those who seek comfort in the conventional.
Carlyle called this "valetism", from the expression "no man is a hero to his valet ". In , he published his anti-democratic Past and Present , with its doctrine of ordered work. England is full of wealth Carlyle wrote it in seven weeks as a respite from the harassing labor of writing Cromwell. He was inspired by the recently published Chronicles of the Abbey of Saint Edmund's Bury , which had been written by Jocelin of Brakelond at the close of the 12th century. This account of a medieval monastery had taken Carlyle's fancy, and he drew upon it in order to contrast the monks' reverence for work and heroism with the sham leadership of his own day.
All these books were influential in their day, especially on writers such as Charles Dickens and John Ruskin. However, after the Revolutions of and political agitations in the United Kingdom, Carlyle published a collection of essays entitled " Latter-Day Pamphlets " in which he attacked democracy as an absurd social ideal, while equally condemning hereditary aristocratic leadership. Two of these essays, No. I: "The Present Times" and No. Government should come from those most able to lead.
But how such leaders were to be found, and how to follow their lead, was something Carlyle could not or would not clearly say. Marx and Engels agreed with Carlyle as far as his criticism of the hereditary aristocracy. However they criticised Carlyle's plan to use democracy to find the "Noblest" and the other "Nobles" that are to form the government by the "ablest" persons.
He has one idea — a hatred of spoken and acted falsehood; and on this he harps through the whole eight pamphlets". In later writings, Carlyle sought to examine instances of heroic leadership in history. The Letters and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell presented a positive image of Cromwell : someone who attempted to weld order from the conflicting forces of reform in his own day. Carlyle sought to make Cromwell's words live in their own terms by quoting him directly, and then commenting on the significance of these words in the troubled context of the time.
Again this was intended to make the "past" "present" to his readers: "he is epic, still living". His essay " Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question " suggested that slavery should never have been abolished, or else replaced with serfdom. As Governor of the Colony, Eyre, fearful of an island wide uprising, brutally suppressed the rebellion, and had many black peasants killed.
Hundreds were flogged. He also authorised the execution of George William Gordon , a mixed-race colonial assemblyman who was suspected of involvement in the rebellion. These events created great controversy in Britain, resulting in demands for Eyre to be arrested and tried for murdering Gordon. Carlyle set up rival Governor Eyre Defense and Aid Committee for the defence, arguing that Eyre had acted decisively to restore order.
Twice Eyre was charged with murder, but the cases never proceeded.
Similar hard-line views were expressed in Shooting Niagara, and After? In this Carlyle tried to show how a heroic leader can forge a state, and help create a new moral culture for a nation. For Carlyle, Frederick epitomised the transition from the liberal Enlightenment ideals of the eighteenth century to a new modern culture of spiritual dynamism embodied by Germany, its thought and its polity.
The book is most famous for its vivid, arguably very biased, portrayal of Frederick's battles, in which Carlyle communicated his vision of almost overwhelming chaos mastered by leadership of genius. Carlyle struggled to write the book, calling it his "Thirteen Years War" with Frederick. Some of the nicknames he came up with for the work included "the Nightmare," "the Minotaur," and "the Unutterable book" .
In , he made his first trip to Germany to gather material, visiting the scenes of Frederick's battles and noting their topography. He made another trip to Germany to study battlefields in The work comprised six volumes; the first two volumes appeared in , the third in , the fourth in and the last two in Emerson considered it "Infinitely the wittiest book that was ever written". James Russell Lowell pointed out some faults, but wrote: "The figures of most historians seem like dolls stuffed with bran, whose whole substance runs out through any hole that criticism may tear in them; but Carlyle's are so real in comparison, that, if you prick them, they bleed.
Stages of the Hero's Journey
Layka tracked down an enemy combatant inside a building and was shot four times. She lost her right leg and underwent surgery to repair her shoulder and tricep. Layka received military honors and was medically retired in August Luca, a German shepherd, was a retired search and rescue dog in Then came a call to the Fort Worth Police that an elderly man with Alzheimer's disease had gone missing. Luca was brought out of retirement to search for him. Luca alerted rescuers to an opening of brush near a river, and the rescuers spotted the man stuck in mud up to his waist on the opposite side of the river.
First responders reached the man before the fast-moving river overwhelmed him. Nitro, a German shepherd, has been serving the Sooner State for more than 10 years. Nitro has participated in about 1, searches for explosives, from bomb threats to presidential protection.
Odin, a German shepherd, played a key role in capturing the murder suspect of a Texas state trooper who was killed while directing holiday traffic on Thanksgiving. Odin and his partner, who is a deputy in the Waller County Sheriff's Office, tracked down the suspect in a wooded area. Odin captured the suspect, preventing officers from being put at risk. A teenage boy from Gloucester, Rhode Island, went missing.
Athens and Sparta
Ruby found the teen. Coincidentally, the boy's mother had worked with Ruby years earlier while volunteering with the Rhode Island Society for Protection of Animals. Labrador retriever Sgt. Fieldy was deployed to Afghanistan in to track down improvised explosive devices. Fieldy found many explosives, including a pound plastic barrel containing homemade explosives.
The canine is credited with saving many lives while stationed in Afghanistan. Fieldy retired in Taker is a bomb-detection dog who saved many soldiers' lives during tours of duty in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Taker struggled with the stress of his experiences as well as with injuries. He retired from duty in and became a therapy dog. Stella, a disaster search dog, is a tenacious Labrador retriever. Despite the removal of her lower right jaw because of a tumor, Stella was deployed to help in the search for survivors after Hurricane Irma and in the mudslides in Montecito, California. Suma L is a retired military dog who served for nine years with the Air Force in Afghanistan.
Suma L searched for improvised explosive devices and was credited with saving up to military and civilian lives. Summer, a Labrador retriever, was stationed with the Marines in Afghanistan in March It is the equivalent of the lion on earth. A powerful bird whose legs - depicted as the spear and knobkierie - serve it well in its hunt for snakes symbolising protection of the nation against its enemies.
It is a messenger of the heavens and conducts its grace upon the earth, in this sense it is a symbol of divine majesty. Its uplifted wings are an emblem of the ascendance of our nation, whilst simultaneously offering us its protection.
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It is depicted in gold, which clearly symbolises its association with the sun and the highest power. An emblem of brightness, splendour and the supreme principle of the nature of energy, it symbolises the promise of rebirth, the active faculties of reflection, knowledge, good judgement and willpower. It is the symbol of the source of life, of light and the ultimate wholeness of Humanity.
The completed structure of the Coat of Arms combines the lower and higher oval shape in a symbol of infinity. The path that connects the lower edge of the scroll, through the lines of the tusks, with the horizon above which the sun rises at the top, forms the shape of the cosmic egg from which the secretary bird rises. In the symbolic sense this is the implied rebirth of the spirit of our great and heroic nation. Based on the ideas received, along with input from the Cabinet, a brief was written.
Three designers were chosen to present their concepts to the Cabinet. Mr Iaan Bekker's design was chosen for the new Coat of Arms. He is a director of the FCB Group and has designed numerous corporate identities for public and private sector organisations. On 1 October , the public service embarked on a Batho Pele campaign aimed at improving service delivery, to the public. For this new approach to succeed some changes need to take place.
Public service systems, procedures, attitudes and behaviour need to better serve its customers — the public. Setting service standards specifying the quality of services that customers can expect Increasing access to services especially to those disadvantaged by racial, gender, geographical, social, cultural, physical, communication, and attitude related barriers Ensuring higher levels of courtesy by specifying and adhering to set standards for the treatment of customers.
Providing more and better information about services so that customers have full, accurate, relevant and up-to-date information about the services they are entitled to receive. Increasing openness and transparency about how services are delivered, the resources they use and who is in charge. Remedying failures and mistakes so that when problems occur, there is a positive response and resolution to the problem Giving the best possible value for money so that customers feel their contribution to the state through taxation, is used effectively and efficiently and savings are ploughed back to further improve service delivery.
Click here to read the full Batho Pele pdf document 1, MB. If you struggle, click here for instructions on how to open it. Batho Pele is about eliminating wasteful and expensive internal systems that were not designed to put the needs of the people first. Most of the improvements that the public would like to see cost nothing. Things such as: a smile, treating customers with respect and being honest when providing information and apologising if things go wrong. These are not a matter of additional resources - they are a matter of adopting different standards of behaviour.
The implementation of Batho Pele is not a once-off task.