The book goes through the trajectory of the change in native cultures — that populations move through time and become more complex. Birmingham explained that the first circular mounds showed up around AD, known as the Hopewell period. They built mounds with people buried in pits beneath the mound. A good example of this type of mound is the Nicholls Mound near Trempealeau. The mounds also contained trade and exotic items.
What they did was dig a big pit for the dead. When filled, they built a mound over it. These were mausoleum mounds with offerings inside such as obsidian from out west, copper from Lake Superior, blades from other areas, pottery, and wood spheres covered with silver. The objects mark the status of a people. These mounds reveal to us complex societies with social structures and elaborate trade networks.
This is the start of the Effigy mound period which lasted between AD. This is correlated with a climatic shift. We believe that this population density created friction and that they developed a common ancestry by creating clans such as bear and thunderbird. By expressing themselves this way they were linking to their ancestry. These clans or spirits played other rolls in society. Thunderbirds give blessings. Bears are associated with earthly order. The different functions organized society and bound people together. There are about mounds remaining in the Madison area out of about Among the most significant are three large groups preserved on the grounds of the Mendota Mental Health Institute on Troy Drive.
The Mendota State Hospital mound group near the main administration building contains some of the finest, rarest and largest effigy mounds preserved anywhere. Included are three large birds, two panthers one with an unusually curved tail , two bears, a deer, several conical mounds, and one mound of indeterminate shape. One of the bird effigies has a foot wingspan. The deer effigy is unusual because four legs are depicted.
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The third group, called the Woodland Shores group, now partly destroyed, depicts mounds with a clear arrangement that models the underlying structure of effigy mound ceremonialism. It was the fall of the year. Although the man hunted constantly, he had no success. There came a light snowfall. But there was no sign of any game. Everyday he hunted all day long, but got nothing. The supply of food was getting very low. The chief's son loved his two dogs very much.
He awoke in the middle of the night. He had never heard those voices before. Then, he realized that the two dogs were talking together. He could understand every word they said. Black-dog was older and larger than Spotted-dog. Black-dog said, "Younger brother, I have failed to help find any game. You are younger than I am. Why don't you try to find something? Our brother the chief's son needs help. Spotted-dog said, "Oh, I could find something if I wanted to for his sake, but our sister-in-law, his wife, treats me badly.
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I am sorry, but I don't feel like helping. She treats me like a dog! How about our older brother? He's always treated us very well. We should scare up some game so they won't go hungry. I can't hunt without food.
The man awoke at daylight. He roused his wife and told her to prepare what remained of their food supply. She did as she was told. When it was cooked, the man told her to put it in a bowl. She did this and brought it to him. Then he cooled the food, stirring it with a spoon, after which he gave it to the two dogs. Then the man spoke to the dogs. He said, "Brothers, since you have lived with me I have always treated you right. I have taken good care of you and brought you up to be my companions.
The food we had is all gone and I am giving the last of it to you now. I won't eat a bite of it. I wish that you would go and find some more food, so that we can eat again. I am hungry now. After eating, the dogs left the lodge. Immediately, Spotted-dog ran away. Soon they heard him barking a short distance from the camp. The man had hunted at that spot many times and caught nothing. This time, however, he saw that Spotted-dog had found a very large bear.
They killed the bear right in his nest, but the bear was so large that they could not pull him out. The man called his wife to help and they got the bear out. It was still early in the morning, so she cooked some bear meat for their breakfast. The dogs also were fed again. After that they hunted again. Spotted-dog located another bear and the chief's son killed a deer.
From that time on, they found plenty of game and dried it on a rack for safe keeping. Once again, the chief's son awoke in the middle of the night. Again, he heard the dogs talking together. Black-dog spoke to his younger brother. You should go spy on them. Then, he told his wife to prepare some food. When it was ready, he gave the food to the dogs. After eating, Spotted-dog started out. He traveled for four nights and then came upon the enemy. He heard the leader say that they were going after a man, his wife, and two dogs. The dog hurried back to the chief's son.
Using his spirit power, he was able to make the journey more quickly, and arrived home just before daylight. He told the man that the enemy was four days distant. The chief's son then said to Spotted-dog, "Take the news back to the village.https://ereararbenbe.ml/messe-des-pauvres-organ.php
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Spotted-dog arrived there one morning. The people knew that the chief's son had two dogs. They were alarmed to see only one dog return. They thought that all had been killed but this dog. Spotted-dog entered the chief's lodge. He licked the chief's hands and whined. The chief could not understand what the dog was trying to say. The chief sent for an old woman who was blessed by the spirit of a dog and who was able to converse with dogs.
She talked with Spotted-dog and said to him, "Your people are anxious to know why you returned home all alone. Have your brothers and sisters been killed by an enemy? Stranger enemies are coming. I was sent here to get you to come and help my brothers. They are waiting there for the enemy to come. Give me something to eat and I shall return to help them. Follow my tracks and you will be guided to the place where they are. The chief sent two town criers to tell all the people. They made preparations and started right away. Each man took extra moccasins with him. Spotted-dog finished eating and started on his return journey.
He arrived there that same day. Since they lacked his spirit power, the war party arrived two days later. Spotted-dog spied on the enemy to find out just where they were. Black-dog said, "Our enemy's dream will not come true. I have more power than they have. When the reinforcements arrived, they were given plenty of food from the hunter's supplies. Then they prepared to fight. There was snow on the ground. Spotted-dog said that the enemy would come the next morning. A great number of the enemy were approaching, so the people set a trap for them and hid on either side of the approach to the camp.
The dogs were to give the signal to start fighting because the enemy would pay no attention to the dogs. As soon as all the enemy came within the wings of the trap, the dogs cried four times as instructed. Then those lying in wait started to shoot. The enemy knew then that they were trapped.
They were tired from their long journey. Those attacking them had had plenty of food and rest and were fresh for the battle. That is why they killed the enemy easily. Then the victors started for home. They carried with them all the meat supplies and the scalps of the enemy. From that time on the two dogs were very useful. Black-dog used to know when an enemy was coming and Spotted-dog acted as a spy. He was also clever at hunting.
When Black-dog grew very old, he said to Spotted-dog, "Brother, I am going to leave you. I urge you to remain with our brother, the chief's son, and to help him as long as you live. When you, too, are ready to go, you must come to the place where I will dwell. Adapted from Will C. There once was a young man who was a chief's son. He took no interest in hunting and wars. He preferred to go about visiting with the people. His dog was small and light-colored. The man was never known to mistreat his dog.
Some young men planned to go hunting for deer. They thought that they would like to take along the chief's son even though he was never interested in hunting. They thought he would be useful as a camp tender. So they invited him to come along. He accepted their invitation. They hunted for several days. One day, they discovered men's tracks near the camp. These they observed while returning from hunting. Some said, "Let us return to the village without going back to the camp to get the chief's son.
Some enemy awaits us there. If they kill the chief's son, that is only one lost. Let the rest of us escape. The chief's son was left alone with his dog. He waited for the hunters until it was very late, but they did not come. Then the dog spoke.
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The chief's son thought that it was strange that a dog should talk. He could understand perfectly every thing that the dog said. He told the chief's son what had taken place and all that had been said by the hunters. You don't need to fight and I'll watch over you tonight. Go right to sleep. But the young man was afraid to sleep. The dog kept going out and coming in again.
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Stay in the lodge. I am going out to fight them. But remember, whatever you do, don't look at me. Soon after that the dog went out and the fight began. The dog came into the lodge from time to time during the battle. The fight was still raging at midday. Once in a while the chief's son heard a war whoop outside. He wondered about that. He thought it would be fun to look and see what was happening, but the dog had told him not to look at him while he was fighting. Nevertheless the chief's son peeked out the door of the lodge.
That was when the dog gave a yelp and ran from the enemy. He came running into the lodge. There was an arrow through his fore paw, which had only happened because the young man had disobeyed the dog's instructions not to look at him. He told the man to pull the arrow out. Then the dog said, "That settles it -- now I'm going to finish them. If you want to join in the fight, just follow me. No harm will come to you.
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The chief's son decided to help in the fight. So he left the lodge. The dog was there fighting. He was ferocious and looked like an angry panther. He threw himself at the enemy with increasing rage. The man took his place in the fight beside the panther. Then the panther said, "It is good of you to help me out. We'll soon finish these fellows. Then the panther said, "Now we call return home.
We shall take all these scalps with us. Those who returned to the village have reported that we were both killed. The dog remained in the form of a panther. Finally they came to the village. Everyone was astonished to see them. The hunters who had returned without them were shamed by their parents, who told them what a great wrong they had done. They had been afraid to fight and had deserted the chief's son. Then they had lied by saying that he was dead. The panther now told the chief's son, "It is not proper for me to live with you now.
I will stay here in the woods. I will know if any of the enemy are coming and always be on hand to help you. Then the chief's son would go out to engage them in battle. All of the people looked up to him as a brave warrior. And whenever he wished to hunt deer, the panther would join him and together they would kill great quantities of game.
Thus, he gained the reputation of a great hunter. There I shall be with you. Then the panther went away, and the people of the village saw him no more. There once was an orphan boy and his grandmother who lived in a small Ho-chunk village. The boy had a friend of about the same age. One day, they went out to get hickory wood to make arrows for shooting birds. When these arrows were done, the orphan boy went out hunting hawks and captured a young pigeon-hawk. He took it home and made it into a pet. One day, he made a small bundle of tobacco and tied it around the hawk's neck.
The hawk flew off and returned after a while but without the tobacco bundle. The boy tied another bundle around its neck and the bird flew off, returning again without the bundle. This happened again and again. The hawk grew to full size, and again the boy again tied a bundle of tobacco around its neck. He thanked the hawk for staying with him so long but explained that now that the bird was fully grown, it could do whatever it wished. The hawk flew away and never returned. Some time later, the orphan boy and his friend went out to collect dogwood to make pointed arrows.
They were searching through some thick brush and accidentally got separated as a storm was coming up. The bad thunder spirits picked up the orphan boy and carried him to their home. His friend looked and looked for him, but finally gave up and went home. Day after day, the friend returned to the same spot to look for the orphan boy, whom he missed very much. When the bad thunder spirits reached their home with the boy, they put him on the floor and tied his wrists and ankles to stakes.
They did not feed him, because they would only eat people who had empty stomachs, and they were waiting until his stomach was empty. They watched him carefully to prevent his escape. Of course the bad thunder spirits were pleased with their captive, and bragged to everyone about what they had done. The little Pigeon-Hawk that had been the boy's pet heard about it and went to see what everyone was talking about. He recognized the boy who had given him so much tobacco and had taken care of him for so long.
Pigeon-Hawk killed some pigeons and roasted them. Hiding the meat under his wings, he went to see the orphan boy. When the bad thunder spirits weren't looking, he dropped some meat in the boy's mouth. He did this for several days, until the bad thunders realized what must be going on. The next time Pigeon-Hawk came, the bad thunders tried to push him out of the door. He stumbled and let himself fall into the fire to be burned, crying out loudly. He then went to his brother, Big Black Hawk, who was the chief of the Thunderbirds.
His big brother asked him what the matter was, and little Pigeon-Hawk told him the story of his friend held captive by the bad thunders and about to be eaten by them. Big Black Hawk was angry with the bad thunders and went to the place where they were holding the boy captive. He told them that they were wrong in bringing this boy up there to be eaten, but he had not said anything. However, since they had also hurt little Pigeon-Hawk, he could no longer let it go. He released the orphan boy and took him away.
Little Pigeon-Hawk brought him pigeons, roasted them, and fed him and nursed him back to health because he was almost starved.