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This enfranchisement came from the Prime Minister Asadollah Alam. A law was passed which gave women limited voting rights, allowing them the right to vote in local elections. For the white revolution referendum, Khomeini mentioned purged Islam and the Qoran and instead, "gave women the right to vote and participate in the election". He believed that this right is merely a slogan or propaganda by the state to hide its dictatorial and fascist face with democracy and liberalism and to make the country of free men and free women.

He described this equality performing by shah as "serves only to mislead the uninformed masses and to cover its crimes. Khomeini believed that such power for women was comparable to prostitution. It is their duty, Islam is a political religion".

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Since the voting rights law was repealed, women were not allowed to take part in a referendum held during the White Revolution. However, the Minister of Agriculture suggested that women's movement leaders set up a voting booth to voice their suggestions. Though their votes did not count, the high number of women votes convinced Mohammad Reza Shah to grant women voting rights soon after the referendum. In September of the same year, , in the parliamentary elections, six women were elected to the parliament, and two women were appointed by the Shah to serve in the Senate.

Hijab is a veil worn by Muslim women when interacting with males outside of their immediate family. Before the foundation of the Islamic Republic , women were not required to wear a veil. In , Reza Shah mandated that women should no longer be veiled in public [ citation needed ] , because of that, a significant number of women became isolated in their houses as they felt going outside their home without hijab was equivalent to being naked. Women's dependency during this period grew as they relied on others to run errands.

Compulsory hijab was re-instated for Iranian state employees after the Islamic revolution in , followed by a law for requiring the wearing of hijab in all public spaces in Women who do not wear a hijab or are deemed to be wearing 'bad hijab' by having some of their hair showing face punishments ranging from fines to imprisonment. It was announced that in the beginning of , women would no longer be arrested for wearing 'bad hijab' in public.

Though the announcement was viewed as a moderate improvement, activists campaigning against compulsory hijab have still since been targeted by police. On November 26, Nasrin Sotoudeh , a female political prisoner at Tehran's Evin Prison, began a hunger strike demanding the release of Farhad Meysami , a doctor who is in jail for protesting compulsory hijab.

Early December US State Department condemned the arbitrary arrest of the Iranian doctor, Farhad Meisami, who has been jailed by Iranian government for protesting the compulsory Hijab law. Meisami has been on hunger strike since August. These were a series of laws that included women's rights to divorce, helped to raise the marriage age for both boys and girls, and curtailed the custom of polygamy, mandating spousal consent before lawfully marrying a second wife.

Under these laws, the right of divorce for women was granted by allowing women to put an end to a marriage if they were unhappy. The law also gave the right to women to keep custody of their children. In addition, it gave women the right to an abortion under certain circumstances, such as rape and if the woman's life was at risk. In , President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad 's administration introduced a "family support bill" in the parliament that would have allowed men to marry a second wife without his first wife's permission and put a tax on Mariyeh — which is seen by many women "as a financial safety net in the event a husband leaves the marriage and is not forced to pay alimony.

Marriage laws in Iran continue to be extremely difficult to change, and keep changed, due to the primary role family plays in Islamic societies. Tradition is a key in Islamic society, to attempt to change a tradition and keep the change applicable, it will have to occur various times to make it permanent. Divorce law in the Islamic Republic of Iran was initially based upon the general rule in Shari'a law that gives men the sole right to end a marriage at any time. This is based on Article of the previous Civil Code that states: A man can divorce his wife whenever he wishes to do so.

This law in the Iranian constitution was modified in by the Family Protection Act which granted women more rights regarding divorce and established mandatory procedures regarding divorce. This also served as an amendment that made all private divorces illegal. More divorce rights were given to women, including the right to apply for a divorce under specific conditions.

Article of the Civil Code gave the court more power to grant a judicial divorce requested by a woman as well as providing specific circumstances in which the wife can attain power of attorney and expedite the divorce process. In modern Iran, divorce can be obtained by both men and women, and the custody of children is given to women rather than men. Iran's civil law system can be seen as very gender distinct, with numerous laws pertaining to favor men over women and few, if any, laws favoring women. Iran follows Islamic laws.

One of the civil laws that is recognized in Iran is the legal age of puberty. In Iran, children that reach the age of puberty also gain penal responsibility, meaning that once a child has surpassed the age of puberty, he or she is legally tried as an adult. This can be seen as disadvantageous towards women, as female children reach puberty around the age of ten and boys around the age of fourteen.

This means that girls as young as the age of ten can be prosecuted criminally. Punishments can vary from prison sentences to lashes and the death penalty. On 13 November , Entekhab, an Iran's official news agency, published a statement of the hiking board of the north eastern province of Khorasan Razavi that requires Iranian women to have a permission from their husbands or their fathers if they want to go hiking. Educational opportunities increased through the rule of Mohammad Khatami, who served as President of Iran from Khatami viewed the home as the proper setting for Iranian women, yet did not seek to exclude women from participating in the public sphere.

Khatami called for an opening of majors and specialties for women in universities and an end to the quota system, which was introduced after the Islamic revolution in Iran to put a cap on women's entrance to universities. At the beginning of Khatami's presidency, over 95 percent of girls in Iran attended elementary school. Agriculture, veterinary science, engineering, and humanities were pursued mostly by men.

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The statistics of the Khatami presidency show the slow rise of female participation in education. Women pursuing teaching positions in higher education also made gains during this period, as women held nearly half of all assistant professorships at universities, nearly double that held a decade before. Despite all the improvement and advancement made concerning higher education for women, there have been many ups and downs regarding this issue. This was part of an effort by the parliament to put a quota on women's participation in higher education.

The writer and activist Bibi Khatoon Astarabadi founded the first school for Persian girls in In this school, Iranian women could study a variety of subjects, including history, geography , law, calculus , religion, and cooking. Iranian women rights activists determined that education was a key for Iranian women and society. They argued that giving women education was best for Iran, in that the mothers would raise better sons for their country.

Enrollment of 12 women into the Tehran University in , marked the entry of women into university education in Iran. The Iranian Revolution initiated social changes that helped more women enroll in universities. Maryam Mirzakhani won gold medals in the and International Mathematical Olympiads, [58] and in her work on dynamics made her the first woman in the world to win the Fields medal , which is widely considered to be the most prestigious award in mathematics.

The rate of women's participation and contribution to Iran's economy "has been According to the statistics of the census, out of the total households having a woman head of year-old and over, only Statistics show that of the managerial positions available, the possibility of women obtaining such a position is one-third that of men.

The types of professions available to women are restricted and benefits are often denied. Additionally, husbands have the right to prevent wives from working in particular occupations, and some positions require the husband's written consent. As of , women's labor-force participation rates remained very low at In contrast, the rate for men is This data is not truly reflective of reality as women's engagement in informal and private sectors are not included in the data.

During the first decade after the revolution in the early s, there were only three women in parliament among the members with women occupying 1. Therefore, women's presence doubled to 3. The women in parliament have ratified a total of 35 bills concerning women's issues. According to the report of Kurdistan human rights network, On November 28, guards in khoy women prison, northwest of Iran, attacked inmate Zeynab Jalalian and confiscated all her belongings.

She was arrested on February and was sentenced to death on accounts of "armed actions against Islamic Republic of Iran and membership in PJAK in addition to possessing and carrying illegal weapons while engaging in acts of propaganda warfare against the Islamic Republic of Iran" on December As the Iran-HRM reported, Late November, prison warden in Qarchak women prison in Varamin , near the capital Tehran attacked and bit three Dervish religious minority prisoners when they demanded their confiscated belongings back.

Women contributed to the development of polo in Persia 2, years ago. Women participate in numerous sports in Iran and have represented the country in sporting events, such as the Asian Games , Olympic games , and World Cups. An issue that has been voiced particularly in recent years has been in regard to women's participation at stadiums for men's volleyball and soccer. Efforts have been made to allow women to enter Iranian stadiums alongside men, but the proposal has not yet been approved. The ban on women entering stadiums has caused an uproar among both men and women in Iran.

It has been indicated numerous times by lawmakers that women's duty is to raise children and not to attend sporting games. Then in , the barring of women was extended to volleyball matches. According to the Muslim clerics of Iran, if a man observes a woman riding a bicycle, it will lead to corruption in society with terrible consequences, including corruption that will lead to crime, sexual offenses, financial crimes, spiritual infidelity, religious disobedience, and many others.

On 2 September , an Iranian woman, Sahar Khodayari , set herself on fire outside a court in Tehran after being tried for resisting arrest for trying to enter a football stadium disguised as a male spectator. The average life expectancy for Iranian women has increased from In the 20th century, female social activists, health workers, and non-governmental organizations promoted the health of women by stressing the importance of regular check-ups such as the Pap smear , mammography , and blood tests.

Vitamin D and calcium supplementation and hormone replacement therapy were emphasized with the goal of preventing osteoporosis. As for concerns with mental health, depression in Iranian women was ranked first among diseases in compared to their second-place ranking in As for their social health, the prevalence of criminal misconduct by women has increased in recent years with crimes related to drugs and violence compared to Iranian men. Khamenei called for a ban on vasectomies and tubal ligation in effort to increase population growth. In , the Iranian parliament approved abortions carried out before four months gestation if a woman's life was at risk or if the fetus was nonviable or growing abnormally.

With technical support from the United Nations Population Fund , the government undertook literacy and family planning initiatives. The fund's specific contributions to the Literacy Movement Organization of Iran included training more than 7, teachers, developing a nine-episode television series on women's health issues including family planning , and procuring computers and other equipment.

Women's efforts to seek equal rights to men date back to the 19th and early 20th centuries. There is little available information on women's rights movements prior to the Qajar dynasty, but more accounts are available from the Qajar and post Qajar era. Women's movements in Iran can be divided into eight periods. Women's efforts were mostly secretive, and their goals were to improve literacy, women's health, and prevent polygamy and domestic violence.


It was a new era in which women were not required to veil and gained access to universities. However, aside from the Family Protection Law that failed and was repealed, no major reforms were made during this era. In the mid 19th century, Tahirih was the first woman to appear in public without wearing a veil, and she is known as the mother of the women's rights movements in Iran. After Tahirih, there were others who followed in her footsteps to raise the status of women.

Safiya Yazdi, with the support of her husband, opened Iffatiyah Girls School in and gained praise for her outspoken lectures on women's issues. Women in Iran are becoming increasingly informed about the current trends within global feminism. They are also becoming more transnationally engaged, especially with regard to the mechanisms, tools, and machineries created through the U.

However, due to the vetting power of the conservative Guardian Council, attempts made by the reformist deputies in the sixth Majlis to ratify CEDAW did not succeed. Most women activists, including Islamic as well as secular ones, have been framing their demands within the CEDAW framework. In recent years, the government has made investments in women's organizations and women's activist initiatives that seek to empower women to learn skills that can help women gain more independence. Activist and photographer Alieh Motalebzadeh was sentenced to three years in prison for attending a workshop for women's empowerment in Georgia.

The women's rights movement in Iran continues to attempt to institute reforms, particularly with the One Million Signatures Campaign to End Discrimination Against Women. Iranian intellectual Farah Karimi wrote a book entitled "Slagveld Afghanistan" that criticizes Dutch military policies in Afghanistan, and in , she was appointed as the representative of the United Nations in Afghanistan affairs. Tajik women founded more than non-governmental organizations NGOs in recent decades to defend their rights and improve their quality of life. Nobel laureate Shirin Ebadi acted as a role model for a new generation of Tajik women.

Many Tajik businesswomen have economic ties with Iran. In Anousheh Ansari , a woman whose family fled the country after the revolution was the first Iranian woman in space. Some suggest that only by accepting help from western feminists, whose progress has been recognized within western society, can the Iranian Women's Movement be recognized. This perspective suggests that western feminism can offer freedom and opportunity to Iranian women that their own religious society cannot.

In addition, advocates of this view argue that no matter what the Iranian Women's Movement is able to achieve within Iranian society, the status of individual women within this society will always be less than what has been achieved by western feminists. By contrast, others suggest that parochial movements of women will never be successful and that until a global sisterhood made up of women from all nations and religions has been established, feminism has not truly arrived.

There is a third perspective suggesting that a global women's movement will inevitably ignore and undermine the unique elements of indigenous Iranian feminism which have arisen as a result of their history and religion. Signing the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations has not improved women's situation much either.

Amnesty International noted in that the extent and prevalence of violence against women in the Kurdish regions of Iran is impossible to quantify, but discrimination and violence against women and girls in the Kurdish regions is both pervasive and widely tolerated. Furthermore, Kurdish cultural norms which facilitate the practice of forced child marriage perpetuate the fear of violence amongst Kurdish girls in Iran. In Iran, honour killings occur primarily among tribal minority groups, such as the Kurdish , Arab , Lori , Baluchi , and Turkish-speaking tribes, while honor-related crimes are not a tradition among Persians who are generally less socially conservative.

Discriminatory family laws , articles in the Criminal Code that show leniency towards honor killings, and a strongly male dominated society have been cited as causes of honor killings in Iran. The provisions of the Penal Code relating to crimes specified in the sharia namely, hudud, qisas and diyah, are of particular relevance in terms of gender justice.

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This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. August Science Technology. Arts Humanities. Popular culture. By country. Main article: Women in Iran. See also: Hijab. See also: Higher education in Iran and Science in Iran. See also: Women's football in Iran. See also: Health care in Iran and Family planning in Iran.

Main article: Women's rights movement in Iran. The Politics of Women's Rights in Iran. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Stars : 5— April 17, Archived from the original on April 18, Archived PDF from the original on December 9, Retrieved December 8, Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 3. World Bank. Archived from the original on June 13, Retrieved August 6, Retrieved March 8, July 2, Archived from the original on July 3, Retrieved July 2, Archived from the original on September 23, Retrieved December 11, Ancient History Encyclopedia.

Archived from the original on May 14, Error rating book. Refresh and try again. Open Preview See a Problem? Details if other :. Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. Preview — Nonofficial Asset by William Sewell. Peyton Stone never quit his day job. But it's his other profession that might just get him killed. For Peyton Stone, that's a work commute. But his is no normal job. On the surface he's a world renowned security expert.

But his real occupation is serving as a "nonofficial asset," a contractor working for the CIA whe Peyton Stone never quit his day job. But his real occupation is serving as a "nonofficial asset," a contractor working for the CIA when the government needs complete deniability. While advancing American interests globally, Stone discovers that those interests can exact a personal price. And when his business partner is murdered in a Shanghai hotel, ominous ghosts from his past return and he's drawn deeper into the covert maze, on the hunt for a stolen nuclear weapon and the rogue Iranian admiral hell-bent on using it.

His skills, training, tactics, mettle and allegiance to family and country are all pushed to the limit as he races to prevent nuclear catastrophe. Get A Copy. Paperback , pages. Published June 25th by Authorhouse first published August 24th More Details Other Editions 6. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up.

To ask other readers questions about Nonofficial Asset , please sign up. Lists with This Book. Community Reviews. Showing Average rating 3. Rating details. More filters. Sort order. I had a great time writing this. I hope you enjoy it. View 1 comment. I'm a little bewildered by the high rating given to this book. It seems like a generic, poorly written spy story with a ridiculous main character.

Also, i am a dog lover but i am just so sick of stories where a guy can undergo incredible tragedy but when the bad guys kill his dog, that's just going too far.

  • Economy of Iran - Wikipedia.
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I find myself looking over my shoulder as I write this. This whirlwind experience has left me a bit shaken. I have taken a trip with Mr. Sewell to some of the most dangerous, war torn parts of the world and have been privy to some incredibly frightening government secrets. You see, Mr. Sewell has lived much of this story.

Nonofficial asset : the Iran affair (Book, ) []

A veteran clandestine contractor, he has applied his intelligence experience behind-enemy-lines. Many of these scenarios are real, along with all the government agencies, milit I find myself looking over my shoulder as I write this. Many of these scenarios are real, along with all the government agencies, military staff and mind blowing technology His tautly written, thrill-a-minute book takes you on the roller coaster journey of a lifetime. The story is quick moving and danger lurks around every corner.

The incredible detail and vivid descriptions of these locations and circumstances make everything seem a little too real. Peyton Stone is spy, one of the best. He works for the CIA, but under the radar. They call him a nonofficial asset. He handles operations that may become so ugly that the government needs complete deniability.

He finds that there is a high price to pay when his past comes back to haunt him. He is barely over the shock of the murder of his best friend, when he finds his own life in danger.

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Without any choice in the matter, Peyton is in the middle of a deadly covert operation. Will Peyton be able to stop this ungodly chain of events? Briefly, the main character is Peyton Stone, who has finally recovered from a traumatic personal loss in his life and is now working for the CIA. His handler there is Harry Morrison strange that his surname is very rarely mentioned as are the other characters.

If you like thrillers involved with Middle Eastern nations, China and the Oval Office thrown it, this will be just up your street. I loved this book from the first page to the end. It is fast moving, extremely well-written and the attent Briefly, the main character is Peyton Stone, who has finally recovered from a traumatic personal loss in his life and is now working for the CIA. It is fast moving, extremely well-written and the attention to detail is remarkable.

The author also so sympathetically portrays the fair sex. I see that there is a sequel coming out in and I cannot wait to buy it. Thank you Mr. Sewell for writing this and giving so much pleasure! This is quite a book, and justifies all the hype. It is on two lists of Goodread.

Did I just read what I thought I read? I closed the book for five minutes reflecting on what I just read. I re-opened the book and re-read the 13th page. Yes, I did read it right. I was hooked after that. For the uninitiated, this book is a spy novel like no other. You This is quite a book, and justifies all the hype. You can compare it to the best of Tom Clancy, and even then it's not quite accurate, it's more than that.

These authors kept me awake at night reading their spy stories; now there's a new "kid" on the block with his first novel called "Nonofficial Asset". Even though the story is fiction, according to the author, it has real backdrops: real locations and real intelligence agencies which makes the story seem true and plausible.

If you're a fan of espionage, read this book. You'll lose sleep reading it no doubt in my mind, but you'll forgive me for recommending it won't you? Five Stars The book is well written and structured and is, as is said, a real "page turner". I understand that Sewell is in the throes of writing a second novel in a "Nonofficial Asset" series. I look forward to securing a copy of his next work which, given the quality of his first offering, will be well-worth reading. It's the same story as before with new and improved editing. Nonofficial Asset will now be the series name with The Iran Affair as the first installment.

So, all of you with this one on your "To Read" shelf can get the latest version from Amazon now at amazon. I bought this solely based on the goodreads rating, and I feel cheated. The book had potential, but serious continuity issues had me turning back pages thinking I must've skipped ahead by accident and missed events - but I hadn't.

Peyton Stone's life had changed forever.

His partner dead. Murdered in his sleep. Peyton Stone is a nonofficial Asset the title given to a CIA contractor engaged when the American governament needs deniablity. Peyton got into plenty of trouble where I didn't think he'd make it out. Tears came to my eyes when his dog died. Nice twist and turns to keep you on the edge. Then at th Peyton Stone's life had changed forever. Then at the end when Peyton spends time with his sons, William's writing brought tears to my eyes.

Good read. I look forward to reading Critical Asset coming out in Thanks, William Sewell for a good read. This is a really good story by an obviously very knowledgable author. However, I must caution you.